Key quotes: “Everyone is a producer of Media, the desire to create and share is great and we can now communicate across geographical barriers”, “...Fan fiction is a way of the culture repairing the damage done in a system where contemporary myths are owned by corporations instead of owned by the folk.”, “Our focus should not be on emerging technologies, but on emerging cultural practices.”, “If old consumers were assumed to be passive, then new consumers are active. theories of representation including Hall, feminist theories including bell hooks and Van Zoonen, theories of gender performativity including Butler. The Proairetic Code also builds tension as it sets the reader guessing what will happen next. This is to accentuate the parts of their body which will attract a male audience. McQuail describes audience as a 'temporary collective'. These stories are as follows: Achilles: The fatal flaw that leads to the destruction of the previously flawless, or almost flawless, person, e.g. For example, following the radio broadcast of War of the Worlds in 1938 (which was a fictional news report of an alien invasion), some people panicked and believed the story to be true. Barbara Fredrickson – objectification; she explored the consequences of being female in a culture that sexually objectifies the female body. Research one of the following topics and its effect on culture. The New Critics argued that speculation about an author’s intention was secondary to the words on the page as the basis of the experience of reading literature. 'Practise without theory is empty; theory without practise is blind.' Tapscott & Williams - Linked Web 2.0 to a new strand of economics (wikinomics, 2006) they said that ‘audiences command and control the web’. wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn, Creativity is a mental and social process involving the discovery of new ideas or concepts, or new associations of the creative mind between existing ideas or concepts. Credible media theories generally do not give as much power to the media, such as the agenda-setting theory, or give a more active role to the media consumer, such as the uses and gratifications theory. She adds, ‘Genre may offer various emotional pleasures such as empathy and escapism’. This explains somewhat genres repetitive nature. a Disney fairytale using computer generated imagery, released in multiplex’s and DVD and internet availability. Creativity is fueled by the process of either conscious or unconscious insight. Berger’s most famous written work, the 1972 book Ways of Seeing, offered not just an idea but also an invitation to see and know the world differently. Much of this content has been taken and edited from resources spanning several years. Other theories focus on specific aspects of media influence, such as the spiral of silence theory’s focus on the power of the majority opinion or the symbolic interactionism theory’s exploration of shared cultural symbolism. E.g. Test, Allies, Enemies – the hero must learn the rules that will govern his quest. power and media industries, including Curran and Seaton. Branston and Stafford also explain the framework of the uses and gratifications model of audience that supposes the “individual consumer of media” is the authority in the media/consumer relationship (274). E.g. If old consumers were predictable and stayed where you told them, then new consumers are migratory, showing a declining loyalty to networks or media. Subcultures = Youths to express themselves and to challenge hegemony (Mostly through style). Genres maintain a fundamental sameness both from decade to decade and from production through exhibition to audience consumption. Many people use the Internet to seek out entertainment, to find information, to communicate with like-minded individuals, or to pursue self-expression. Theories of Mass Media . Contested in some modern films/adverts of today. It emerged because of the dissatisfaction with other models such as Libertarian theory, social responsibility theory, etc.The democratic-participant theory believes there is democratic and professional hegemony in the media today and the media is totally commercial. hybridity, communication, interactivity, participation, connectivity, privacy, memory, access, politics etc. This theory relates especially to public polling and its use in the media (Papacharissi). Professors at Fordham University have formed an association of McLuhan-influenced scholars. Lacey does not see genres as fixed but as dynamic and changing over time. Media scholars are much more numerous now than they were during the 1960s, and many of these scholars criticize McLuhan’s lack of methodology and theoretical framework. Gramsci – Suggested that dominant ideologies can change over time, moving away from heritage and tradition if enough audiences/groups enforce their own discourse (We media). (Deviant Youth, 1995). Early media studies focused on the use of mass media in propaganda and persuasion. ', Nielsen – Lean Forward ‘On the Web, users are engaged and want to go places and get things done. Andrew Keen - argues that, on balance, the Internet has had a disastrous impact on all our lives. Also came up with the concept of 'folk devils'. You may assume the person is successful or powerful because of the car he or she is driving. and looking dreamy and introverted, overcome with emotions, or symbolically silenced with hand over the mouth. Meaning Theory of Media Portrayal; Media Democracy; Media Dependency Theory; Media Malaise Theory; Media Richness Theory; MEDIUM THEORY; Mood Management Theory; Normative Theory – Four Theories of the Press; PLAY THEORY; Reception Theory; Riley & Riley Model of Communication; Social Responsibility Theory; Soviet Media Theory; Technological Determinism Agenda Setting Theory states that mass media organizations determine what the general population considers newsworthy by deciding how much attention a news story receives. In both these examples, the ‘male’ is active (the one doing the looking) and the ‘female’ is passive (the one being looked at). We thus seek creative opportunity in other parts of our life; Love objects - They need something to love and if they do not have something they will buy or make one; Sense of power - when we are in control we have a sense of ability to choose and perhaps possess power over others; Roots - we seek roots but in seeking to satisfy other needs we make ourselves rootless; Immortality – we seek to create meaning in our lives so we may live beyond death. Every text participates in one or several genres, there is no genreless text.”. Tristan and Iseult: The love triangle. Other theories focus on specific aspects of media influence, such as the spiral of silence theory’s focus on the power of the majority opinion or the symbolic interactionism theory’s exploration of shared cultural symbolism. Jonathan Culler (2001) describes narratology as comprising many strands “implicitly united in the recognition that narrative theory requires a distinction between story, a sequence of actions or events conceived as independent of their manifestation, and discourse, the discursive presentation or narration of events.”. B J Mendelson (supports Keen’s idea) said “Those who shout loudest will be heard most” celebs with mass following (bought / ordered online)– taken from book social media is bullsh*t, Evgeny Morozov – dystopian view – Slacktivism. 1987) ‘Television is... the most rewarding medium to use when teaching representations of class because of the contradictions which involve a mass medium attempting to reach all the parts of its class-differentiated audience simultaneously...’. Don Stacks and Michael Salwen (New York: Routledge, 2009), 137. Pre broadband Niche products were hard to find and expensive to buy, now online shopping/sharing makes it easy to cater for everyone's taste. 'Normal' adult and youth behaviour, contrasted with deviant youth behaviour, allows the state to have more control. These elements give the text plausibility with its audience. Quote: “We have extended our central nervous system itself in a global embrace, abolishing both space and time as far as our planet is concerned. Jonathan Culler (1978) – generic conventions exist to establish a contract between creator and reader so as to make certain expectations operative, allowing compliance and deviation from the accepted modes of intelligibility. Use of an Apple product, therefore, may have a symbolic meaning and may send a particular message about the product’s owner. genre theory, including Neale. The results of the People’s Choice Study challenged this model. www.european-photography.com/labor/lab_vf_glo_e.shtml, The ability to think imaginatively and originally Casablanca. on which persuasion techniques are based. John McMuria - A participatory culture is not necessarily a diverse culture. Then, researchers must consider the given media consumer’s cultural background of individuals to correctly determine other factors that are involved in his or her perception of reality. They have also claimed weak effects, meaning that media messages have no little power over viewers. David Bordwell notes, 'any theme may appear in any genre' (Bordwell 1989) ‘One could... argue that no set of necessary and sufficient conditions can mark off genres from other sorts of groupings in ways that all experts or ordinary film-goers would find acceptable' Essentially, genre is hard to classify as pure. Schramm 2. For example, think about a TV news program that frequently shows heated debates between opposing sides on public policy issues. We are a nation of Netizens and prosumers. Robert McKee (alternative to Todorov) – still five stages but as follows: Inciting Incident: An event happens that sets the story going, Progressive Complications: For a key character, things just keep getting worse, Crisis: Things get even worse – it looks like it’s all over for the hero, Climax: Things are now so bad, drastic action is called for. Theories are constructed within media technology eras. Mass Communication: Living in a Media World (Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2009), 80–81. Coates - Examined that there are 4 ways to understand a society (linked to ideology), Dutton - Developed an extension of Galtung & Ruge's news values - 12 most significant. Barthes – says texts may be 'open' (i.e. One of the theories concerned is media dependency theory. There is also a list of miscellaneous theorists at the end, and those specifically referenced to the new specification content September 2017. An auteur can also use lighting, setting, staging, and editing to add to their vision. Indeed, his work has received a great deal of attention in recent years. His bold statements about media gained McLuhan a great deal of attention as both his supporters and critics responded to his utopian views about the ways media could transform 20th-century life. These codes can broadly be divided in to proairetic, symbolic, hermeneutic, referential,... 2 - Narratology - Tzvetan Todorov. Despite—or perhaps because of—these controversies, McLuhan became a pop culture icon, mentioned frequently in the television sketch-comedy program Laugh-In and appearing as himself in Woody Allen’s film Annie Hall. (this contrasts with Keen’s ideas). The current critique of McLuhan, however, is a bit more revealing of the state of modern media studies. Agendas can range from a perceived liberal bias in the news media to the propagation of cutthroat capitalist ethics in films. He sees these worlds as Utopian that offer an abundance of energy, excitement and spontaneity. e.g. Superman, Fatal Attraction. This theory helps media researchers better understand the field because of the important role the media plays in creating and propagating shared symbols. There is a succinct relationship between music and visuals. Symbols can be constructed from just about anything, including material goods, education, or even the way people talk. The last theory of the early theories of media effects would be the Gatekeeping. To effectively communicate, people use symbols with shared cultural meanings. All new items of information are based on preceding ones, and they are "new" ... If the work of media consumers was once silent and invisible, then new consumers are now noisy and public.”, “In this emerging media system, …consumers are transformed into participants who are expected to interact with each other ...each of us constructs our own personal mythology from bits and fragments of information we have extracted from the ongoing flow of media around us and transformed into resources through which we make sense of our everyday lives.”, “Because there is more information out there …than we can store in our heads, there is an added incentive for us to talk amongst ourselves about the media we consume. Thankfully this is changing…. Other critics give the power to the studios and their production schemes to keep genres alive. In contrast to the extreme views of the direct effects model, the agenda-setting theory of media stated that mass media determine the issues that concern the public rather than the public’s views. Theories of Media Language: Semiotics: Barthes . Resolution: Whatever the problem was is sorted out and all is well again. Pretty Woman. The Voice-Over Authority: In moving image advertisements, male voices are used as voice-overs in commercials rather than females. Genres sometimes appear to function ritually and others ideologically. Analysis of McLuhan’s work has, interestingly, not changed very much since his works were published. Defleur - Development of the hypodermic needle effect - he stated that it was dependent on the psychology of the individual (psychodynamic), Fiske Stated that there are 5 factors that determine the social position of an audience. 4. McLuhan spoke of a media-inspired “global village” at a time when Cold War paranoia was at its peak and the Vietnam War was a hotly debated subject. For example, a gunslinger draws his gun and we wonder what the resolution will be. Dan Gillmor - For years ‘Big Media’ (corporations such as Sky, Google and the BBC) have had control over who produces and shares media, and the information that people get. Douglas Kellner – Cultural Studies and the 3 part approach to analysing media texts. Tim O'Reilly - inventor of term 'Web 2.0'. comic relief (C3P0+), False hero villain that pretends to be good in order to trick the hero. Four key reasons why audiences choose to consume media (PIES). Kaplan - Feminism - defined women as a distinct group in two approaches - essentialist approach and anti-essentialist approach (women constructed by male society). Emile Durkheim – Labelling theory holds that deviance is not inherent to an act, but instead the result of the externally-imposed label of "deviant". Hall, Stuart – Reception theory and Mediation is the process by which all media products are read by audiences. He identifies 8 ‘types’ of characters common in stories: Hero (protagonist) has a mission of quest to complete (e.g.Luke Skywalker), Villain (antagonist) tries to stop the hero (Darth Vader), Princess love interest and/or object of the quest (Princess Leia), Father person with knowledge (Leia), Dispatcher sends the hero off (Obi Wan), Donor gives the hero something to help him (Obi Wan), Sidekick the helper (not as handsome as hero) –poss. The internet has allowed for the freedom of citizen journalism. Deborah Knight notes that 'satisfaction is guaranteed with genre; the deferral of the inevitable provides the additional pleasure of prolonged anticipation' (1994). This creates a self-propagating loop in which minority voices are reduced to a minimum and perceived popular opinion sides wholly with the majority opinion. Orpheus: The loss of something personal, the gift that is taken away, the tragedy of loss or the journey which follows the loss, e.g. This is typically done through the use of binary opposites, where new meaning arises out of opposing and conflicting ideas. Stille, Alexander. The term salience transfer is commonly used and refers to the ability of the media to transfer their agendas onto the public. All these theories however are cohesive in agreeing that: The film industry, responding to audience desires, initiates clear-cut-genres that endure because of their ability to satisfy basic human needs. And this is just the beginning — ANYTHING can be taught more effectively through Digital Game-Based Learning.”, Douglas Rushkoff sings the praises of Web 2.0 by stating, “The Internet’s ability to network human beings is its very life’s blood. That audiences passively accepted media messages and would exhibit predictable reactions in response to who! 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